## Contents

How to: Convert a Decimal Number to a Base-256 dotted-decimal / dotted-quad |

How to: Convert an IPv4 Address to a Decimal Number |

## How to: Convert a Decimal Number to a Base-256 dotted-decimal

Step | |

1 | Evaluate the number: If the decimal number is >= 256, then continue to step 2.If the decimal number is less than 256, then use that decimal number for the 4th octet, and pad the rest with zeros so that the result is in dotted-decimal form, with four octets. |

2 | Divide the decimal number by 256 |

3 | Multiply the decimal portion of the result from step 2 by 256 |

4 | Subtract the result of step 3 from the original decimal number to yield the Base-256 octet |

5 | Examine the decimal portion of the result from step 2If that decimal portion of the number is less than 256, then use that number for the next octet.Use zeroes for any remaining octets, so that the number is in dotted-decimal form.if that number is larger than, or equal to 256, then continue from step 2, using that number. |

- Additional examples are in ConvertingToBase256FromDecimal.pdf.

### Example 1

Find the last address in an IPv4 subnet with a network address of 16.0.0.0 /17, with 32,768 addresses per subnet. (This network address is subnet zero.)

First, convert the number of addresses – 1 to Base 256 (dotted-decimal). 32,768 – 1 = 32,767

### Convert 32,767 to Base-256 (dotted decimal):

- Evaluate the number: The number is larger than 256, so we can process the number
- 32,767 / 256 =
**127**.996 **127**x 256 = 32,512- 32,767 – 32,512 =
**255**(this is the 4th octet of the dotted decimal) - Since 127 is smaller than 256 you’re done dividing and the value for the 3rd octet is 127

Using zeroes for the remaining octets yields a Base-256 value of: **0.0.127.255**

- The 255 is from step 4, and the 127 is what was left over, and the 0’s fills out the dotted-decimal.

Once the conversion is complete, add that Base 256 dotted-decimal value to the 1st address to determine the last address in the subnet.

First address in the 1st subnet: | 16 | . | 0 | . | 0 | . | 0 | |

Number of addresses (32,768 per subnet) -1 : | 0 | . | 0 | . | 127 | . | 255 | |

Last address in the 1st subnet: | 16 | . | 0 | . | 127 | . | 255 |

## How to: Convert an IPv4 Address to a Decimal Number

256^{3} | 256^{2} | 256^{1} | 256^{0} |

16,777,216 | 65,536 | 256 | 1 |

w | x | y | z |

An IPv4 address is a 32-bit number. It is generally written in the “dotted-decimal” notation: w.x.y.z. To convert an IP address to base 10, use the following:

w * 16,777,216 + x * 65,536 + y * 256 + z = Decimal IP Address