NYC College of Technology

CST3607: Interconnectivity (Spring 2018)


Contents:
Green Bullet Announcements
Green Bullet Assignment Requirements
Green Bullet Required Texts
Green Bullet Class Notes & Assignments : February, March, April, May
Green Bullet Recommended Web Sites and Books[ NoScript ] uBlock Origin
Green Bullet Log into BlackboardExternal Link
Green Bullet Cisco IOS and Router Command Reference
Green Bullet Bit Patterns of Often Used Subnet Mask Values (pdf)
Green Bullet OSI Reference Model (pdf)
Green Bullet IP Address Conversions : Decimal to Base-256 / Base-256 to Decimal

Announcements


Exam-03: Thurs. April 26, 2018


Final Exam: Tuesday: May 22, 2018

Notify your family and friends not to make any travel plans for you, as you will not be able to take the final exam before class on May 22, 2018.


Exam-02: Thurs. March 29, 2018

Assignment #4, Due Tues. 3/13/2018

Exam-01: Thurs. 3/8/2018

Assignment #3: Due Tues. 3/6/2018

Quiz #1: Subnetting: Thurs. 3/1/2018

Assignment #2: Due Tues. 2/27/2018

Assignment #1: Due Thurs. 2/22/2018

Important note about sending E-Mail to Me
  • Only use the e-mail address I gave you in class to communicate with me.
  • Do not use my cuny.edu address and do not e-mail me via Blackboard.

 


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Required for all Assignments

  • Make sure that your full name is neatly written on your assignment.
  • Submit a typed hardcopy at the beginning of class.
  • If you use the RTF or DocX template I supply, type your answers in the table below each question.
    • If you do not use the template I supply, make sure your answers stand out from the text of the question. i.e. bold or underlined, not both.
  • Do not double space.
  • Do not type your answers in all uppercase.
  • Print out your assignments before you come to class.
    Do not rely on the printer or network in our classroom to be available or functional.
  • Make sure that the correct assignment number and chapter are on your paper. Be mindful that the assignment number is not always the same as the chapter number.
  • E-mail your assignment only if you are going to be absent, and at least 2 hours before class starts, on the day that the assignment is due. This should ensure that I receive your assignment before the start of class.
  • No late assignments will be accepted.

 


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Required Text

CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide: Exam 100-105, Exam 200-105, Exam 200-125, 2nd EditionExternal Link

Author(s): Todd Lammle (Lammle.com)
ISBN: 978-1-119-28828-2 (2nd Edition)
Published date: September 2016
Publisher: Sybex
Also on Amazon.com

eBook: VitalSource.com

Use the LammleSim IOS "IOS CCNA R/S SIM" to practice the hands-on labs.

 

Reference Texts

Connecting to the Internet: A Practical Guide About LAN-Internet ConnectivityExternal Link

Author(s): Andrew F. Ward
Publisher: Addison-Wesley, 1999. ISBN: 0-201-37956-2
Used copies are available through Amazon.comExternal Link

 


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Class Notes & Assignments

Tues. Jan 30, 2018

Top / Home

News & Tools

Notes

Principle of Least Privilege

Malware (short for malicious software. e.g. Virus, Trojan Horse, Worm, Adware, etc.)

BadUSB

 

PortaPow Fast Charge + Data Block USB Adaptor

 

Stay Informed! News Sources

Studying & Learning Tips

 

Memorize these Bit Patterns of Often Used Subnet Mask Values (pdf)

Bit(s)

Binary

 

Decimal

1

10000000

=

128

2

11000000

=

192

3

11100000

=

224

4

11110000

=

240

5

11111000

=

248

6

11111100

=

252

7

11111110

=

254

8

11111111

=

255

 

Password Managers

 

Backing Up: 3-2-1 Rule

Optical Media for Long Term Archives

Live AntiVirus and Recovery Discs

Troubleshooting Client Network Connectivity

 

Read / Watch

Do

February

Thurs. Feb 1, 2018
Top / Home

News

More than 150,000 Internet-facing printers were scanned, located, and used

 

Identity Theft is a big problem.

 

Protocol Review:

 

Cisco IOS and Router Command Reference

 

Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast

 

Collision and Broadcast Domains

 

 

Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.

 

How would you know that a network has been compromised?

 

Network Analyzer/Packet Sniffer

 

Segment Your Network / Isolate Guests & IoT devices from your main segment

 

Ubiquiti Networks EdgeRouter X:

 

Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP)

Microsoft OneNote

 

Read

Do

 

Tues. Feb 6, 2018
Top / Home

 

New & Tools

Attackers Exploiting Unpatched Flaw in (Flash 02 Feb 18)

Enable Microsoft Office Protected View

 

QuickTime should be uninstalled from all Microsoft Windows systems

 

2 Factor Authentication

 

Panopticlick

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has online tracker-testing in its Panopticlick, helping you analyze the privacy protections in your Web browser.

Web Browser Plugins

Wireless Network Security

WPA3

 

 

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A virtual private network (VPN) enables users to send and receive data while remaining anonymous and secure online.

In the simplest terms, a VPN is used to create a secure, encrypted connection between your computer and a server operated by the VPN service.

 

Types of Ethernet cabling

Autonomous System (AS)

RFC (Request for Comments)

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Deprecated / Deprecation

 

Cisco's Three-Layer Hierarchical Model

 

 

Read

Do

 

 

Thurs. Feb 8, 2018
Top / Home

 

News

 

Tools

Rufus: Create a bootable USB from an ISO

XBoot: Create a bootable USB flash drive with multple Live OS's

 

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Phase

Transmission Method

Description

Discover broadcast --> Client requests an IP address.
The client broadcasts a DHCPDISCOVER message on the physical subnet to find available servers. The client creates a UDP packet with the broadcast destination of 255.255.255.255 or the subnet broadcast address.
Offer <-- unicast DHCP server offers an IP address from its pool.
When a DHCP server receives an IP lease request from a client, it extends an IP lease offer. This is done by reserving an IP address for the client and sending a DHCPOFFER message across the network to the client. This message contains the client's MAC address, followed by the IP address that the server is offering, the subnet mask, the lease duration, and the IP address of the DHCP server making the offer.
Request broadcast --> When the client PC receives an IP lease offer, it must tell all the other DHCP servers that it has accepted an offer. To do this, the client broadcasts a DHCPREQUEST message containing the IP address of the server that made the offer. When the other DHCP servers receive this message, they withdraw any offers that they might have made to the client. They then return the address that they had reserved for the client back to the pool of valid addresses that they can offer to another computer. Any number of DHCP servers can respond to an IP lease request, but the client can only accept one offer per network interface card.
Acknowledge <-- unicast When the DHCP server receives the DHCPREQUEST message from the client, the final phase of the configuration process is initiated. The acknowledgement phase involves sending a DHCPACK packet to the client. This packet includes the lease duration and any other configuration information that the client might have requested. At this point, the IP configuration process is complete.

 

 

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

 

Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)

 

Connection-oriented service vs Connectionless service

 

 

Subnet zero and the all-ones subnet

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite.

ICMP messages are divided into two broad categories: error-reporting messages and query messages.

 

When a packet is received by a router, what does the router have to do?

  1. Decrement TTL by 1, then evaluate TTL
  2. What is the network that the packet is destined for?
  3. Do I have that network in my routing table?
  4. If no, then drop the packet and send an ICMP destination unreachable to the sender
  5. If yes, then…

 

Traceroute

Traceroute TTL diagram

 

Read / Watch

Do

 

 

 

Tues. Feb 13, 2018
Top / Home

 

News & Tools

 

BlueBorne

 

Anti-Virus, or Not?

Better Focus and Efficient Studying When Not Multitasking / Multi-Focusing

 

Subnet and Bits Cross-reference img

 

Using the AND function to determine the network address

 

Broadcast Address, Wildcard Mask, Block Size practice:

 

Default Mask vs Mask

 

Using the Wildcard mask to determine the last address (a.k.a. broadcast address) within a subnet.

MicroNugget: Wildcard Masks by Keith Barker

 

Read / Do

Practice, practice, practice: SubnettingQuestions.com

 

Practice makes improvement!

 

 

 

 

 

Thurs. Feb 15, 2018
Top / Home

 

Google: My Activity

 

Supernetting

 

Subnetting

Answer these questions when subnetting:

 

Using the AND function to determine the network address

 

Subneting into a Large Number of Subnets

Determine the network address of a high subnet number.

  1. Multiply the target subnet number by the number of addresses per subnet, to get the number of addresses to add to the network address (subnet zero) to jump to the target subnet.
  2. Convert the resulting number of addresses to its Base-256 (dotted-decimal) equivalent.
  3. Add the Base-256 (dotted-decimal) equivalent to the network address/subnet zero, to determine the target subnet address.

Note about the "target subnet"

 

Converting a Decimal Number to Base 256  (Dotted-decimal)

Example Decimal to Base-256/Dotted-Decimal Conversion (Subnetting Problem 2)

 

 

Subnetting Tips/Notes

 

 

Do

 

Example Decimal to Base-256/Dotted-Decimal Conversion (Subnetting Problem 2)

 

Do

 

 

Tues. Feb 20, 2018 No Class (Classes follow a Monday Schedule)
Top / Home

Do

 

Thurs. Feb 22, 2018
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News and Tools

Anki is a program which makes remembering things easy. Because it's a lot more efficient than traditional study methods, you can either greatly decrease your time spent studying, or greatly increase the amount you learn.

NYU Tandon School of Engineering’s NY Cyber Fellows program is an elite, affordable part-time online MS in Cybersecurity in partnership with New York City Cyber Command, with a curriculum designed in cooperation with elite corporate partners.

 

 

Assignment #1 Debriefing

 

Subnetting practice

 

Read/Do

Read/Do

 

 

 

 

Tues. Feb 27, 2018
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Assignment #2 Debriefing

 

Subnetting Practice

 

 

 

 

March

Thurs. March 1, 2018
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Classful vs. Classless Subnetting

When you’re subnetting an IP address for a network you have two options: classful and classless.

Classful subnetting is the simplest method.

Classless addressing allows you to use different subnet masks and create subnets tailored to the number of users/addresses in each group.

 

VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask)

VLSM: Configuring Subnets Using the Numeric Method (PDF)

 

VLSM Numeric Method Outline

 

Watch:

 

Quiz #1: Subnetting

 

Do

 

Tues. March 6, 2018
Top / Home

 

News & Tools

LTE security flaws could be used for spying, spreading chaos

A flight of new research papers show 4G LTE networks can be exploited for all sorts of badness.

 

This is how little Signal knows about its privacy-loving users

Privacy win for encrypted messaging app.

World’s largest DDoS attack thwarted in minutes

Microsoft fights massive cryptocoin miner malware outbreak

 

 

Assignment #3 debriefing

 

Quiz #1 Debriefing

 

 

Route Summarization / Route Aggregation / Network Address Aggregation

Step 1 Convert the addresses to binary format and align them in a list.
Step 2

Locate the bit where the common pattern of digits ends.

(It might be helpful to draw a vertical line marking the last matching bit in the common pattern.)

Step 3

Count the number of common bits.

The summary route number is represented by the first IP address in the block, followed by a slash, followed by the number of common bits.

 

Do

 

 

Thurs. March 8, 2018
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Exam #1

The exam includes, but is not limited, to the following:

 

Chapters 1 - 5 from the CCNA Routing and Switching Study Guide 2nd Edition

OSI Reference Model:

Classfull vs Classless (CIDR) IP addressing

Subnetting

Converting a decimal number to its Base-256 dotted-decimal form.

Protocols

 

Troubleshooting Commands

DHCP

 

 

 

 

Tues. March 13, 2018
Top / Home

 

News and Tools

@Citizenlab catches ISPs invisibly redirecting download requests for popular programs, injecting them with government spyware. Unencrypted web traffic is now provably a critical, in-the-wild vulnerability. 20-30% of top internet sites affected.

The Hapless User: Secure from the inside out

 

Cisco CSS/CSM Day 828 problem

 

Exam 1 Debriefing

 

IP Subnet Practice Page (Todd Lammle)

 

Cisco IOS

 

What Is Administrative Distance?

 

Read / Do

Note: Until further notice, bring your text book to every class, so that you'll have access to the instructions for the Hands-on Labs.

 

Thurs. March 15, 2018
Top / Home

 

Better Focus and Efficient Studying When Not Multitasking

 

 

Assignment #4 Debriefing

 

Telnet, Console and AUX Port Passwords on Cisco Routers Configuration Example

 

Set password for console access:

(config)# line console 0
(config-line)# password <password_here>
(config-line)# login

 

Routers

 

Lab-01

You must be in this class to get credit for this labs.

 

Read / Do

Note: Until further notice, bring your text book to every class, so that you'll have access to the instructions for the Hands-on Labs.

 

 

Tues. March 20, 2018
Top / Home

 

 

Office Lens

Office Lens trims, enhances, and makes pictures of whiteboards and docs readable. You can use Office Lens to convert images to PDF, Word and PowerPoint files, and you can even save images to OneNote or OneDrive.

 

 

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)

 

How Routers Talk to Each Other

Forwarding Techniques

Techniques to make the size of the routing table manageable.

Delivery of a Packet

Routing protocols:

Metric

An interior gateway protocol (IGP) is a routing protocol that is used within an autonomous system (AS).

An Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is used between autonomous systems.

 

Prevent "Translating. domain server (255.255.255.255)" Messages after an Invalid Command is Entered on a Router

 

Lab-02

 

Read / Do

 

Read / Do

Note: Until further notice, bring your text book to every class, so that you'll have access to the instructions for the Hands-on Labs.

 

Do

 

 

Thurs. March 22, 2018
Top / Home

News and Tools

 

Routing Protocols

Protocol

Category / Vector

Description

RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

distance-vector routing

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

distance-vector routing

  • considered a classful routing protocol
  • IGRP supports multiple metrics for each route, including bandwidth, delay, load, MTU, and reliability
  • maximum hop count of IGRP-routed packets is 255 (default is 100)

EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

distance-vector routing

  • Adds support for VLSM (variable length subnet mask)
  • Adds the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) in order to improve routing and provide a loopless environment.
  • EIGRP has completely replaced IGRP

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

link-state routing protocol

  • Routes packets based solely on the destination IP address found in IP packets.
  • Designed to support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM, CIDR).
  • OSPF detects changes in the topology, such as link failures, very quickly and converges on a new loop-free routing structure within seconds.
  • falls into the group of interior gateway protocols, operating within an autonomous system (AS)
  • the most widely-used interior gateway protocol (IGP) in large enterprise networks
  • OSPF does not use TCP or UDP but uses IP directly, via IP protocol 89. OSPF handles its own error detection and correction, therefore negating the need for TCP or UDP functions.

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)

path vector protocol

  • makes routing decisions based on path, network policies and/or rulesets
  • v4 supports Classless Inter-Domain Routing and the use of route aggregation to decrease the size of routing tables.
  • RFC 4271
  • The most widely-used exterior gateway protocol (EGP) is BGP.

 

 

Router Configuration Checklist

 

Loop Prevention (Routers)

Forwarding Techniques

Techniques to make the size of the routing table manageable.

 

 

Routing Tables

Field

Description

Mask The network prefix (in CIDR notation) of the destination network

Network address

The network address of the destination network

Next Hop IP address

The IP address of the next neighbor router to the destination network.
Think... From the router I am on, what is the IP address of the closest router I can forward the packet to, to get that packet to the destination network?

Interface

The network interface used to get to the next hop router.
a.k.a. "Exit Interface"
Think... From the router you're on, which interface do I have to send the packet out of, to get it to the Next Hop router?

 

 

 

Lab-03: Building Routing Tables

 

Read / Do

 

Do

 

 

 

Tues. March 27, 2018
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News and Tools

 

Google: My Activity

 

Lab-03 Debriefing

 

Loop Prevention (Routers)

 

Decoding the output from "show ip route"

This is one entry from: show ip route

O  90.125.0.0 [110/74] via 18.1.25.2, 05:29:08, Serial0/0

O Routing protocol "OSPF"
90.125.0.0 Remote network
[110 OSPF Administrative Distance (AD)
/74] OSPF cost
via 18.1.25.2 Next hop for the 18.0.0.0 /8 network
05:29:08 Aging time. How long the protocol has been running?
Serial0/0 Exit interface

Reference:

 

Router Configuration Checklist

Cisco IOS

 

Router Simulator (RouterSim)

 

Lab-04: (Configuring Router interfaces, and the RIP Routing Protocol)

 

Troubleshooting: Having a problem with your lab?

 

 

Do

 

Thurs. March 29, 2018
Top / Home

 

Read / Do

 

Exam 2

You must be able to correctly answer all of the Review Questions from each chapter.

The exam includes, but is not limited, to the following:

 

Chapter 5 (VLSM)

Chapter 6: Cisco's Internetworking Operating System (IOS)

Chapter 7: Components of a Cisco Router and Switch, CDP (Cisco Discover Protocol)

Chapter 8: Managing Cisco Devices

 

Chapter 9: IP Routing

 

Chapter 18: OSPF

 

Describe How A Network Works

 

Diagnostics & Troubleshooting Commands

Forwarding Techniques

Delivery of a Packet

Logical and Physical addressing during the forwarding process:

 

 

 

 

April

Tues. April 3, 2018 (Spring Recess - No Class)
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Read / Do

 

Thurs. April 5, 2018 (Spring Recess - No Class)
Top / Home

Read / Do

 

Tues. April 10, 2018
Top / Home

 

Exam 2 Debriefing

 

Lab-04 Debriefing

 

 

Document the configuration of each router in your lab

 

 

Chapter 10: Layer 2 Switching

The three functions of a switch.

Configuring an IP address on a switch

Port Security on a Switch

(Chapter 10, pgs. 417, 428)

Restrict and shutdown violation modes alert you via SNMP that a violation has occurred on a port. (pg. 443, 3rd sentence in the 5th paragraph)

 

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU)

 

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP): Port States

The ports on a switch with enabled Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) are in one of the following four port states.

Blocking

Listening

Learning

Forwarding

Note: "Disabled" is not one of the four STP states. Disabled (technically, is not a transition state). A port in the administratively disabled state doesn’t participate in frame forwarding or STP. A port in the disabled state is virtually nonoperational.

 

 

Read / Do / Watch

 

 

 

Thurs. April 12, 2018
Top / Home

 

Exam #3 will be on Thursday: April 26, 2018

 

News & Tools

 

Self-Evaluation

 

Routerlabs.de

 

Cisco IOS

 

OSPF Router ID

The OSPF Router-ID is used to identify a specific device within an OSPF database. Router ID’s must be unique to prevent unintended OSPF database problems.

 

OSPF Loopback Interface

Configuring a Gateway of Last Resort Using IP Commands

 

Lab-05: (Serial, OSPF, DHCP)

Do

 

Read / Do

 

 

 

Tues. April 17, 2018
Top / Home

 

News & Tools

 

 

Chapter 11: VLANs and InterVLAN Routing

 

 

 

Read / Do

 

 

 

 

 

Thurs. April 19, 2018
Top / Home

 

News and Tools

 

Access Control List (ACL)

Standard ACL (1-99)

Extended ACL (100-199)

applied closest to the destination

applied closest to the source

Denies or Permits:

  • source IP address

Denies or Permits:

  • source IP address
  • destination IP address
  • port or service

 

Access-list - Practice Test

 

MicroNugget: Wildcard Masks by Keith Barker

 

Lab-07: Chapter 12: Cisco IOS: Security: Access Control Lists (ACLs)

Router

Interface

IP Address

Network Address

Wildcard Mask

Description

Corp

Serial 0/0

172.16.10.1 /30

   

Connection to SF

Corp

Serial 0/1

172.16.10.5 /30

   

Connection to LA

Corp

Fa0/0

10.10.10.1 /24

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

SF

Fa0/0

192.168.10.1 /24

   

 

SF

S0/0/0

172.16.10.2 /30

   

Connection to Corp

 

 

 

   

 

LA

Fa0/0

192.168.20.1 /24

   

 

LA

S0/0/0

172.16.10.6 /30

   

Connection to Corp

 

Read / Do

 

 

Tues. April 24, 2018
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Lab-08: Chapter 10 Hands-on Lab

 

Lab-09: Chapter 11 Hands-on Lab: VLANs

 

Read / Do

 

 

Thurs. April 26, 2018
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Exam #3: In Class, via Blackboard

To be prepared for this, and any of the exams, you must be able to answer all of the Review Questions at the end of each chapter.

This exam includes, but is not limited, to the following:

 

Chapter 10: Layer 2 Switching

Chapter 11: VLANs and InterVLAN Routing

Chapter 12: Security: Access Control Lists (ACL)

OSI Reference Model

Troubleshooting Commands and syntax

 

 

Read / Do

 

 

May

Tues. May 1, 2018
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Thurs. May 3, 2018
Top / Home

 

Tues. May 8, 2018
Top / Home

 

Thurs. May 10, 2018
Top / Home

 

Tues. May 15, 2018
Top / Home

 

Thurs. May 17, 2018
Top / Home

 

 

Tues. May 22, 2018

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Final Exam

To Be Determined: Depending on how much we accomplish.

 

Recommended Web Sites and Books

 


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