NYC College of Technology

CST3607: Interconnectivity (Fall 2017)

Assignment Requirements
Required Texts
Class Notes & Assignments : September, October, November, December
Recommended Web Sites and Books[ NoScript ] uBlock Origin
Log into BlackboardExternal Link
Cisco IOS and Router Command Reference
Bit Patterns of Often Used Subnet Mask Values (pdf)
OSI Reference Model (pdf)
IP Address Conversions : Decimal to Base-256 / Base-256 to Decimal


Exam #3: Thursday: Nov. 30, 2017

Quiz #2: Due Sun. 10/29/2017 before 12pm (noon)

Exam #2: Thursday, Oct. 26, 2017

Quiz #2: Due Sun. 10/8/2017 before 5pm

Exam #1: Thurs. 10/5/2017

Quiz #1: Subnetting: Tues. 10/3/2017

Assignment #3: Due Tues. 10/3/2017

Assignment #2: Due Thurs. 9/28/2017

Assignment #1: Due Tues. 9/26/2017

Important note about sending E-Mail to Me
  • Only use the e-mail address I gave you in class to communicate with me.
  • Do not use my address and do not e-mail me via Blackboard.


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Required for all Assignments

  • Make sure that your full name is neatly written on your assignment.
  • Submit a typed hardcopy at the beginning of class.
  • If you use the RTF or DocX template I supply, type your answers in the table below each question.
    • If you do not use the template I supply, make sure your answers stand out from the text of the question. i.e. bold or underlined, not both.
  • Do not double space.
  • Do not type your answers in all uppercase.
  • Print out your assignments before you come to class.
    Do not rely on the printer or network in our classroom to be available or functional.
  • Make sure that the correct assignment number and chapter are on your paper. Be mindful that the assignment number is not always the same as the chapter number.
  • E-mail your assignment only if you are going to be absent, and at least 2 hours before class starts, on the day that the assignment is due. This should ensure that I receive your assignment before the start of class.
  • No late assignments will be accepted.


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Required Text

CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide: Exam 100-105, Exam 200-105, Exam 200-125, 2nd EditionExternal Link

Author(s): Todd Lammle (
ISBN: 978-1-119-28828-2
Publish date: September 2016
Publisher: Sybex
Also on


Use the LammleSim IOS "IOS CCNA R/S SIM" to practice the hands-on labs.



Reference Texts

Connecting to the Internet: A Practical Guide About LAN-Internet ConnectivityExternal Link

Author(s): Andrew F. Ward
Publisher: Addison-Wesley, 1999. ISBN: 0-201-37956-2
Used copies are available through Amazon.comExternal Link


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Class Notes & Assignments

Tuesday: Aug. 29, 2017
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In Class

Principle of Least Privilege


Stay Informed! News Sources

Studying & Learning Tips


Memorize these Bit Patterns of Often Used Subnet Mask Values (pdf)






































Password Managers


Backing Up: 3-2-1 Rule


Optical Media for Long Term Archives

Troubleshooting Client Network Connectivity



Read / Watch


Thursday: Aug. 31, 2017
Top / Home


PortaPow Fast Charge + Data Block USB Adaptor


Identity Theft is a big problem.


Protocol Review:


Cisco IOS and Router Command Reference


Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast, Anycast


Collision and Broadcast Domains



Microsoft OneNote


Wireless Network Security


Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A virtual private network (VPN) enables users to send and receive data while remaining anonymous and secure online.

In the simplest terms, a VPN is used to create a secure, encrypted connection between your computer and a server operated by the VPN service.






Tuesday: Sept. 5, 2017
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More than 150,000 Internet-facing printers were scanned, located, and used


QuickTime should be uninstalled from all Microsoft Windows systems


2 Factor Authentication



The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has online tracker-testing in its Panopticlick, helping you analyze the privacy protections in your Web browser.

Web Browser Plugins


Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.


How would you know that a network has been compromised?


Network Analyzer/Packet Sniffer



Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP)


Types of Ethernet cabling

Autonomous System (AS)





Thursday: Sept. 7, 2017
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Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)


Cisco's Three-Layer Hierarchical Model


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)


Transmission Method


Discover broadcast --> Client requests an IP address.
The client broadcasts a DHCPDISCOVER message on the physical subnet to find available servers. The client creates a UDP packet with the broadcast destination of or the subnet broadcast address.
Offer <-- unicast DHCP server offers an IP address from its pool.
When a DHCP server receives an IP lease request from a client, it extends an IP lease offer. This is done by reserving an IP address for the client and sending a DHCPOFFER message across the network to the client. This message contains the client's MAC address, followed by the IP address that the server is offering, the subnet mask, the lease duration, and the IP address of the DHCP server making the offer.
Request broadcast --> When the client PC receives an IP lease offer, it must tell all the other DHCP servers that it has accepted an offer. To do this, the client broadcasts a DHCPREQUEST message containing the IP address of the server that made the offer. When the other DHCP servers receive this message, they withdraw any offers that they might have made to the client. They then return the address that they had reserved for the client back to the pool of valid addresses that they can offer to another computer. Any number of DHCP servers can respond to an IP lease request, but the client can only accept one offer per network interface card.
Acknowledge <-- unicast When the DHCP server receives the DHCPREQUEST message from the client, the final phase of the configuration process is initiated. The acknowledgement phase involves sending a DHCPACK packet to the client. This packet includes the lease duration and any other configuration information that the client might have requested. At this point, the IP configuration process is complete.



ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)



Read / Watch




Tuesday: Sept. 12, 2017
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A rash of invisible, fileless malware is infecting banks around the globe

Surveillance Self-Defense is Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)'s guide to defending yourself and your friends from surveillance by using secure technology and developing careful practices.


Since Hurricane Katrina, the National Insurance Crime Bureau has offered a free vehicle identification number, or VIN, check service to see if a car has been in a flood. The service is available at A VIN also can be entered into the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System database at

Carfax, which charges $39.99 for a report, is offering its flood-damage database for free post-Harvey. Buyers can check if a car is flood-damaged at


In Class

Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)

Connection-oriented service vs Connectionless service




Rufus: Create a bootable USB from an ISO

XBoot: Create a bootable USB flash drive with multple Live OS's

inSSIDer open-source Wi-Fi scanning software


Read / Do




Thursday: Sept. 14, 2017
Top / Home



Anti-Virus, or Not?


Subnet zero and the all-ones subnet


Broadcast Address, Wildcard Mask, Block Size practice:


Default Mask vs Mask


Using the Wildcard mask to determine the last address (a.k.a. broadcast address) within a subnet.

MicroNugget: Wildcard Masks by Keith Barker


Read / Do

Practice, practice, practice:


Practice makes improvement!





Tuesday: Sept. 19, 2017 **TH (Classes follow Thurdsay schedule)
Top / Home

Google: My Activity





Answer these questions when subnetting:


Using the AND function to determine the network address


Subneting into a Large Number of Subnets

Determine the network address of a high subnet number.

  1. Multiply the target subnet number by the number of addresses per subnet, to get the number of addresses to add to the network address (subnet zero) to jump to the target subnet.
  2. Convert the resulting number of addresses to its Base-256 (dotted-decimal) equivalent.
  3. Add the Base-256 (dotted-decimal) equivalent to the network address/subnet zero, to determine the target subnet address.

Note about the "target subnet"


Converting a Decimal Number to Base 256  (Dotted-decimal)

Example Decimal to Base-256/Dotted-Decimal Conversion (Subnetting Problem 2)



Subnetting Tips/Notes





Example Decimal to Base-256/Dotted-Decimal Conversion (Subnetting Problem 2)





Thursday: Sept. 21, 2017 : (No Classes)
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Tuesday: Sept. 26, 2017
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Better Focus and Efficient Studying When Not Multitasking


Assignment #1 Debriefing


Subnetting practice.





Thursday: Sept. 28, 2017
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Assignment #2 Debriefing


VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask)

VLSM: Configuring Subnets Using the Numeric Method (PDF)







Tuesday: Oct. 3, 2017
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In Class


Route Aggregation / Route Summarization / Network Address Aggregation

Step 1 Convert the addresses to binary format and align them in a list.
Step 2

Locate the bit where the common pattern of digits ends.

(It might be helpful to draw a vertical line marking the last matching bit in the common pattern.)

Step 3

Count the number of common bits.

The summary route number is represented by the first IP address in the block, followed by a slash, followed by the number of common bits.


Quiz #1: Subnetting



Thursday: Oct. 5, 2017
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Quiz #1: (Subnetting) debriefing


In Class

Exam #1


Read / Do




Tuesday: Oct. 10, 2017
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Better Focus and Efficient Studying When Not Multitasking


In Class


Read / Do



Thursday: Oct. 12, 2017
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Security News


Cisco IOS






Read / Do





Tuesday: Oct. 17, 2017
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New York City Civil Service IT Titles (DC 37: Local 2627)

Certified IT Administrator (LAN/WAN)


How to Get Your First Ruby on Rails Job




Lab-02: R&S Study Guide: Chapters 6 & 7 Hands-on Labs Combined






Thursday: Oct. 19, 2017
Top / Home


ROCA: Vulnerable RSA generation (CVE-2017-15361)

Security Now 633 KRACK and ROCA


Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)

How Routers Talk to Each Other

Forwarding Techniques

Techniques to make the size of the routing table manageable.

Delivery of a Packet

Routing protocols:


An interior gateway protocol (IGP) is a routing protocol that is used within an autonomous system (AS).

An Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is used between autonomous systems.

Routing Protocols:


Category / Vector


RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

distance-vector routing

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

distance-vector routing

  • considered a classful routing protocol
  • IGRP supports multiple metrics for each route, including bandwidth, delay, load, MTU, and reliability
  • maximum hop count of IGRP-routed packets is 255 (default is 100)

EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

distance-vector routing

  • Adds support for VLSM (variable length subnet mask)
  • Adds the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) in order to improve routing and provide a loopless environment.
  • EIGRP has completely replaced IGRP

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

link-state routing protocol

  • Routes packets based solely on the destination IP address found in IP packets.
  • Designed to support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM, CIDR).
  • OSPF detects changes in the topology, such as link failures, very quickly and converges on a new loop-free routing structure within seconds.
  • falls into the group of interior gateway protocols, operating within an autonomous system (AS)
  • the most widely-used interior gateway protocol (IGP) in large enterprise networks
  • OSPF does not use TCP or UDP but uses IP directly, via IP protocol 89. OSPF handles its own error detection and correction, therefore negating the need for TCP or UDP functions.

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)

path vector protocol

  • makes routing decisions based on path, network policies and/or rulesets
  • v4 supports Classless Inter-Domain Routing and the use of route aggregation to decrease the size of routing tables.
  • RFC 4271
  • The most widely-used exterior gateway protocol (EGP) is BGP.



Tuesday: Oct. 24, 2017
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Google: My Activity


Router Configuration Checklist


Loop Prevention (Routers)

Routing Tables



Mask The network prefix (in CIDR notation) of the destination network

Network address

The network address of the destination network

Next Hop IP address

The IP address of the next neighbor router to the destination network.
Think... From the router I am on, what is the IP address of the closest router I can forward the packet to, to get that packet to the destination network?


The network interface used to get to the next hop router.
a.k.a. "Exit Interface"
Think... From the router you're on, which interface do I have to send the packet out of, to get it to the Next Hop router?




Lab-03: Building Routing Tables


Read / Do



Thursday: Oct. 26, 2017
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Lab-03 Debriefing


Decoding the output from "show ip route"

This is one entry from: show ip route

O [110/74] via, 05:29:08, Serial0/0


Routing protocol "OSPF"

Remote network


OSPF Administrative Distance (AD)


OSPF cost


Next hop for the /8 network


Aging time. How long the protocol has been running?


Exit interface




Exam 2

You must be able to correctly answer all of the Review Questions from each chapter.

The exam includes, but is not limited, to the following:




Tuesday: Oct. 31, 2017
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Exam 2 / Quiz 4 Debriefing


Router Configuration Checklist

Cisco IOS


Router Simulator (RouterSim)


Lab-04: (Configuring Router interfaces, and the RIP Routing Protocol)








Thursday: Nov. 2, 2017
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Document the configuration of each router in your lab


Quiz 4


Read / Do


Tuesday: Nov. 7, 2017
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Exam #3 will be on Thursday: Nov. 16, 2017



Cisco IOS


OSPF Router ID

Loopback Interface

Configuring a Gateway of Last Resort Using IP Commands


Lab-05: (Serial, OSPF, DHCP)


Read / Do / Watch



Thursday: Nov. 9, 2017
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Chapter 10: Layer 2 Switching

The three functions of a switch.

Configuring an IP address on a switch

Port Security on a Switch

(Chapter 10, pgs. 417, 428)

Restrict and shutdown violation modes alert you via SNMP that a violation has occurred on a port. (pg. 443, 3rd sentence in the 5th paragraph)


Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU)


Spanning Tree Protocol (STP): Port States

The ports on a switch with enabled Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) are in one of the following four port states.





Note: "Disabled" is not one of the four STP states. Disabled (technically, is not a transition state). A port in the administratively disabled state doesn’t participate in frame forwarding or STP. A port in the disabled state is virtually nonoperational.


Lab-06: Chapter 10 Hands-on Lab

Read / Do



Tuesday: Nov. 14, 2017
Top / Home is a service aimed at verifying the information your computer sends to the web. It is perfect for checking proxy or socks servers, providing information about your VPN server and scanning black lists for your IP address. The service shows whether your computer enables Flash and Java, as well as its language and system settings, OS and web-browser, define the DNS etc.


Chapter 11: VLANs and InterVLAN Routing


Lab 7: Chapter 11 Hands-on Lab: VLANs





Thursday: Nov. 16, 2017
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In Class

Access Control List (ACL)

Standard ACL (1-99)

Extended ACL (100-199)

applied closest to the destination

applied closest to the source

Denies or Permits:

  • source IP address

Denies or Permits:

  • source IP address
  • destination IP address
  • port or service


Access-list - Practice Test


MicroNugget: Wildcard Masks by Keith Barker


Lab-08: Chapter 12: Cisco IOS: Security: Access Control Lists (ACLs)



IP Address

Network Address

Wildcard Mask



Serial 0/0 /30


Connection to SF


Serial 0/1 /30


Connection to LA


Fa0/0 /24









Fa0/0 /24




S0/0/0 /30


Connection to Corp







Fa0/0 /24




S0/0/0 /30


Connection to Corp



Read / Do


Tuesday: Nov. 21, 2017 **F (Classes follow Friday schedule)
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Thursday: Nov. 23, 2017 - No Classes - Recess
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Tuesday: Nov. 28, 2017
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Quiz 5




Thursday: Nov. 30, 2017
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In Class

Exam #3: In Class, via Blackboard

To be prepared for this, and any of the exams, you must be able to answer all of the Review Questions at the end of each chapter.

This exam includes, but is not limited, to the following:


Read / Do






Tuesday: Dec. 5, 2017
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Thursday: Dec. 7, 2017
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Tuesday: Dec. 12, 2017
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Thursday: Dec. 14, 2017
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Tuesday December 19, 2017 ~ Last Day of Class
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Final Exam: Tues. December 19, 2017

(Note: This outline of the final exam will change, so check often for updates as this day approches.)


The final exam includes, but is not limited, to the following:





Recommended Web Sites and Books


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